Advanced Database queries in Frappe

Frappe queries involving joins, group by and order

Goal

In this post we will see how we can accomplish join and group by using Frappe database api.

Setup

We have an app which has categories, items and reviews. There are multiple categories and each item will be of a particular category. Every item can have multiple reviews.

We will use doctypes Hub Item and Hub Category and Hub Item Review in our examples.

Hub Item has a Link field which points to Hub Category. Hub Item has a Table field which points to Hub Item Review.

Assuming Hub Category looks like the following:

{
    "name": "Hub Category",
    "fields": [
        {
            "fieldname": "description",
            "fieldtype": "Text Editor"
        },
    ]
}

Assuming Hub Item looks like the following:

{
    "name": "Hub Item",
    "fields": [
        {
            "fieldname": "hub_category",
            "fieldtype": "Link",
            "options": "Hub Category"
        },
        {
            "fieldname": "reviews",
            "fieldtype": "Table",
            "options": "Hub Item Review"
        },
    ]
}

We want to accomplish the followings:

Get child table rows for Hub Items using single query

Assuming we have an index page in our website where we want to show 20 Hub Items.

The query for that would be:

In [1]: items = frappe.get_all("Hub Item", start=0, page_length=20, fields="name, hub_category", order_by='creation desc')

Suppose we also want to show several reviews for each of the twenty items. Making a db call for each Hub Item to get its reviews would lead to 20 db calls which would be highly inefficient.

The performant and efficient way would be to join Hub Item and Hub Item Review. frappe.get_all() is capable of performing join provided we satisfy some conditions.

We need to ask for child table attributes in the fields kwarg of get_all().

In [2]: items_with_reviews = frappe.get_all("Hub Item", fields="`tabHub Item`.name, `tabHub Item`.hub_category, `tabHub Item Review`.content")

Doctype Hub Item Review is stored in table tabHub Item Review under the hood. In above query, we have mentioned tabHub Item Review in fields. This gives a cue to frappe.get_all() that join is needed here between parent doctype Hub item and child doctype Hub Item Review.

The rows of items_with_reviews would look like:

In [3]: items_with_reviews[1]
Out[3]:
{u'content': u'Now username attribute would be set on reviews.',
 u'hub_category': 'Bags',
 u'name': u'002-002-08778'}

In [4]: items_with_reviews[2]
Out[4]: {u'content': u'This is an awesome product too.', u'hub_category': 'Bags', u'name': u'002-002-08778'}

In [5]: items_with_reviews[3]
Out[5]: {u'content': u'This is a good product too.', u'hub_category': 'Bags', u'name': u'002-002-08778'}

It is your responsibility to group all reviews for a particular item into say a single list and assign it to item.

You can see the query which is executed if you pass debug=True to get_all().

In [6]: items_with_reviews = frappe.get_all("Hub Item", fields="`tabHub Item`.name, `tabHub Item Review`.content", debug=True)

The logged query would look like:

select `tabHub Item`.name, `tabHub Item Review`.content from `tabHub Item` left join `tabHub Item Review` on (`tabHub Item Review`.parent = `tabHub Item`.name) order by `tabHub Item`.`modified` DESC

We can get reviews for most recent 20 items by executing:

In [7]: items = frappe.get_all("Hub Item", fields="`tabHub Item`.name, `tabHub Item`.hub_category", start=0, page_length=20)
In [8]: item_names = [item['name'] for item in items]
In [9]: item_with_reviews = frappe.get_all("Hub Item", fields="`tabHub Item`.name, `tabHub Item Review`.content", filters={"name": ("IN", item_names)})

Get count of child table rows for each Document

Suppose we want to get count of reviews for each Hub Item in a single query.

At database level we want to work with Item table as well as Review table. So we need to give a cue to get_list() to perform a join. The following query would do the trick:

In [10]: items_with_reviews_count = frappe.get_list("Hub Item", fields="`tabHub Item`.name, `tabHub Item Review`.parent, count(`tabHub Item Review`.content) as cnt", group_by="`tabHub Item`.name")

In [10]: items_with_reviews_count[0]
Out[10]: {u'cnt': 4, u'name': u'iPhone', u'parent': u'iPhone'}

We can find items annotated with number of reviews in descending order by doing:

In [11]: items_with_reviews_count = frappe.get_list("Hub Item", fields="`tabHub Item`.name, `tabHub Item Review`.parent, count(`tabHub Item Review`.content) as cnt", group_by="`tabHub Item`.name", order_by="cnt desc")

In [12]: items_with_reviews_count[0]
Out[12]: {u'cnt': 6, u'name': u'002-002-08778', u'parent': u'002-002-08778'}

By default, our queries only give us the name field of the Link Document.

Assuming we have an index page in our website where we want to show 20 Hub Items.

The query for that would be:

items = frappe.get_all("Hub Item", start=0, page_length=20, fields="name, hub_category", order_by='creation desc')

You can get the hub_category for an item by doing:

print(items[0].hub_category)

Suppose we wanted to show description of each associated category along with the item too. Something like items[0].hub_category_description. In such case we need a join between Hub Item and Hub Category.

Frappe database api doesn’t provide a straightforward method for this. You need to write raw sql query to achieve this.

items = frappe.db.sql("select i.name, i.hub_category, c.description as hub_category_description from `tabHub Item` as i left join `tabHub Category` as c on i.hub_category=c.name order by i.creation desc limit 0, 20", as_dict=True)

Thank you for reading the Agiliq blog. This article was writen by Akshar on Jul 22, 2018 in pythonerpnextfrappe .

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